Q. What is steel reinforcement? Why is it required in a concrete structure?
Steel reinforcements are used, generally, in the form of bars of circular cross section in concrete structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcements, to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads.
Q. What is bar-bending-schedule?
Bar-bending-schedule is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting and bending of rebars. This schedule contains all details of size, shape and dimension of rebars to be cut.
Q. What are the different types of steel reinforcements being used in a reinforced concrete structure?
Mild steel bars conforming to IS: 432 (Part I) and Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars conforming to IS: 1786 (grade Fe 415 and grade Fe 500, where 415 and 500 indicate yield stresses 415 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2 respectively) are commonly used. Grade Fe 415 is being used most commonly nowadays. This has limited the use of plain mild steel bars because of higher yield stress and bond strength resulting in saving of steel quantity.
Some companies have brought thermo mechanically treated (TMT) and corrosion resistant steel (CRS) bars with added features.
Bars range in diameter from 6 to 50 mm. Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars start from 8 mm diameter. For general house constructions, bars of diameter 6 to 20 mm are used.
Q. Why cover blocks are required to be placed before concreting? What are their sizes?
Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from getting exposed to the atmosphere, and to place and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Once the steel is exposed to the atmosphere, corrosion starts. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured.
Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are used. As a thumb rule, minimum cover of 2" in footings, 1.5" in columns and 1" for other structures may be ensured.
Q. How important are transverse reinforcements like links and stirrups? What precautions should be taken while tying them?
Transverse reinforcements are very important. They not only take care of structural requirements but also help main reinforcements to remain in desired position. They play a very significant role while abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc.
They should be closely spaced as per the drawing and properly tied to the main/longitudinal reinforcement.
Q. What is a lap or development length? Where and how should they be provided?
Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length.. Lap length about 50 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. Laps of neighbouring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. At one cross section, a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped.
In case, required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints, bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding).
Q. What is anchorage length?
This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. For example, main bars of beam in column at beam column junction, column bars in footing etc. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions.
Q. What is the checklist for steel reinforcement before the placement/pour of concrete?
Reinforcement should be free from loose rust, oil paints, mud etc. it should be cut, bent and fixed properly. The reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, laps etc. Reinforcements shall be placed and tied such that concrete placement is possible without segregation, and compaction possible by an immersion vibrator.
Q. For a given diameter, how do we calculate the weight of steel per meter length of the steel bar and vice versa?
For any steel reinforcement bar, weight per running meter is equal to d2/162 Kg, where d is diameter of the bar in mm. For example, 10 mm diameter bar will weigh 10x10/162 = 0.617 Kg/m.
Q. Can we receive the quality test certificate of steel from the supplier?
Yes. We can receive the test certificate of the batch of materials supplied at our site. The certificate will confirm the compliance of quality of supplied materials as per the requirement of relevant Indian standard code.