Q. What general considerations, we should have while laying out the pipelines?
Carpet Area: This is the area of the apartment/building, which does not include the area covered by the walls. Built up Area: The carpet area plus the area of the walls. Super Built up Area: This includes the built up area along with the area under common spaces such as the lobby, lifts, stairs, etc.
1. The lines should be so laid that there is no risk contamination of water supply. For this, following three things are necessary -
1. No cross connection anywhere between pipes carrying potable water carrying waste water.
2. No back flow from any appliance towards the source of supply.
3. Water supply pipes and waste water pipes (drainage pipes) not to be laid very close to each other.
2. Pipelines should be properly protected against any damage. Underground pipeline should be enclosed in a cement mortar and have sufficient earth cover.
3. Pipe network should be simple and straight as far as possible.
Q. How much water do we require for daily consumption and storage?
For residential buildings, water requirement of 135 liters per head per day may be assumed. For example, for four persons, we should plan storing and consuming 4x135 = 540 liters of water everyday.
Q. What kind of materials one should use in laying pipelines?
There are many options like copper/brass pipe, galvanized iron (GI) pipes, plastic pipes etc. However, GI pipes are more commonly used in India.
Q. What is a service pipe? What should be its diameter?
he pipe leading from the distribution mains of the municipal water supply to the plumbing system of the house is known as the service pipe. As a general yardstick, the diameter of the service pipe can be fixed on the basis of occupants in the house, as given in the following table-
|No. of occupants
||Diameter of service pipe (mm)
Q. How should we design our storage tanks?
The water supply to a building may either be continuous or intermittent. Even in the case of continuous supply in the mains, the pressure of water may not be sufficient to raise the water to all the floors of the building. In either case, storage tanks are required. The storage tanks may be situated either at the ground level, or at the roof level or at the both levels. If the pressure of the water is sufficient to raise the water to the roof level, storage tank is provided only at the roof level, so as to store water because of intermittent supplies. If the pressure of water is not sufficient, water is first stored at a ground level tank, from where it is pumped to the top storage tank.
A storage tank may be made of mild steel plates or reinforced concrete or brick masonry or plastic. It should have accessories like top cover, valve with ball float assembly to control the inflow of water, over flow pipe in case float assembly fails, supply or inlet pipe for water to admit in to the tank, outlet pipe and drain pipe to clean the water periodically.
The capacity of storage tank depends on following factors -
1. Supply hours from the mains, with sufficient pressure.
2.Frequency with which the tank can be refilled during 24 hours.
3. Rate and regularity of supply.
For example, in case if the example given in the previous question, if water supply is once a day only and for not a considerable period, it would be advisable that the entire daily requirement of 540 liters be stored in the tank and consumed later. Therefore, the capacity of the tank in this case would be 540 liters.
Q. Are there any effects if the water pipes are concealed in the walls?
Only small diameter pipes used for supply of water for domestic purpose can be concealed. During the laying of pipes care should be taken to see that the nodes or the joints are properly fixed without any chance of leakage. But it is always recommended to conceal pipes only in unavoidable situations and limit it to small lengths.