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FAQ

Q. What Is Concrete?

Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, stone aggregates and water.

At ACC, we have a specially focused range on Ready Mix Concrete (RMX). ACC set up India's first commercial Ready Mixed Concrete (RMX) plant in Mumbai in 1994.

Q. What Is RCC?

If a concrete mix is placed in and around a cage of steel rods, it is called Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC).

ACC Cement is one of the most used cement in all constructions including plain and reinforced cement concrete, brick and stone masonry, floors and plastering.

Q. What Is Mortar?

Mortar is a mix of cement, sand and water, to be used for brick works/block works and plaster. It is necessary that the sand and cement are mixed in appropriate proportions to make the mortar.

At ACC, we provide quality products and assistance to home builders at every step of the construction to make the process easier for you. Get in touch with your nearest ACC Dealer and make your dream home stronger and long-lasting.

Q. How Much Water Should Be Added In A Concrete Mix Of One Bag Of Cement For Normal Construction Work?

The amount of water that is required per bag of cement is 25 -28 liters. Know the importance of water-cement ratio from the experts. Our dedicated dealers are there to help you. Call your nearest ACC Dealer today.

Q. How Does Color Affect The Quality Of Cement & Its Concrete?

Quality of cement has nothing to do with its color.

Q. What Precautions Should One Take For Water To Be Used In Concrete Construction?

  • It is good to use potable quality of water.
  • It should be free from impurities and harmful ingredients.
  • Seawater isn't recommended.
  • The water fit for mixing is fit for curing too.
  • Use of minimum quantity of mixing water, consistent with the degree of workability required to enable easy placing and compaction of concrete, is advisable.
  • Ensure that water is measured and added.
  • Low water to cement ratio is essential for good performance of the structure in the long run.

For more construction tips, contact your nearest ACC Dealership.

Q. What Is The Minimum Recommended Concrete Mix Proportion For RCC Works?

1:1.5:3, where 1 part of cement is to be mixed with 1.5 parts of sand and 3 parts of coarse aggregates. Water requirement for the mix would be less than 25 liters per bag of cement.

Q. What Are The Common Mistakes, Which Affect The Quality Of Concrete?

The ways in which concrete maybe spoilt are many, most common of them being:

  • Use of too much or too little water for mixing, or water carelessly added during mixing.
  • Incomplete mixing of aggregate with cement
  • Improper grading of aggregates resulting in segregation or bleeding of concrete.
  • Inadequate compaction of concrete
  • Using concrete which has already begun to set.
  • Placing of concrete on a dry foundation without properly wetting it with water.
  • Use of dirty aggregate or water containing earthy matter, clay or lime.
  • Too much troweling of the concrete surface.
  • Leaving the finished concrete surface exposed to sun and wind during the first ten days after placing without protecting it and keeping it damp by proper methods of curing.

Our experts help home builders take the right decision and avoid errors and mistakes at every step. Contact your nearest ACC Dealership today.

Q. What Are The Factors Responsible For Governing The Compressive Strength Of Concrete?

The compressive strength is governed by the following factors:

  • W/C ratio
  • characteristics of cement
  • characteristics of aggregates
  • Time of mixing
  • Degree of compaction
  • Temperature and period of curing
  • Age of concrete
  • Air entertainment
  • Conditions of testing.

ACC is a hallmark of quality and durability in Cement and Ready Mixed Concrete. Each product is designed to make your home long-lasting with extensive research and a talented team.

Q. Within How Much Time The Freshly Prepared Mortar/Concrete Should Be Used?

The mortar/concrete should be used as early as possible after adding water to it. The hydration of cement starts the moment water is added to it. As the hydration progresses the cement paste starts stiffening and loses its plasticity. The concrete should not be disturbed after this. Normally, this is about 45 - 50 minutes.

Q. What Does MPa Stand For & What Is Its Significance?

MPa is abbreviated form of mega Pascal, which is a unit of pressure. 1 MPa is equivalent to a pressure of 10Kg /cm2. The strength of concrete & cement is expressed in terms of pressure a standard cube can withstand. The Ordinary Portland Cement, commonly called OPC is available in three grades namely 33, 43 & 53 grades. Thus, for a 43 grade cement a standard cement & sand mortar cube would give a minimum strength of 43 MPa or 430 Kg /cm2 when tested under standard curing conditions for 28 days.

Q. What Are Construction Joints And Where They Should Be Provided In Concrete?

Construction joints are the joints provided between successive pours of concrete that have been carried out after a time lag. As far as possible the construction joints should be avoided and every care should be taken to keep their numbers minimal. Since, presence of these joints creates a plane of weakness within the concrete body, these joints should be preplanned and their location should be such that they are at places where they are subjected to minimum bending moment and minimum shear force.

Q. Why Is Compaction Essential?

Green concrete has all the three phases - solids, water & air. In order to make the concrete impervious & attain its maximum strength it is required to remove the entrapped air from the concrete mass when it is still in plastic state. If the air is not removed completely, the concrete loses strength considerably. It has been observed that 5% voids reduce the strength by about 30% and 10% voids reduce the strength by over 50%.

Compaction eliminates air bubbles and brings enough fine material both to the surface and against the forms to produce the desired finish. One can use such hand tools as steel rods, paddling sticks, or tampers, but mechanical vibrators are best. Any compacting device must reach the bottom of the form and be small enough to pass between reinforcing bars. Since the strength of the concrete member depends on proper reinforcement location, be careful not to displace the reinforcing steel.

Q. Is There Any Shelf Life Of Cement?

Cement is a hygroscopic material meaning that it absorbs moisture. In presence of moisture it undergoes chemical reaction termed as hydration. Therefore cement remains in good condition as long as it does not come in contact with moisture. If cement is more than three months old then it should be tested for its strength before being taken into use.

Whenever you are buying cement, make sure you check the quality, and not just the cement price.Contact your nearest ACC Dealerto understand the importance of quality.

Q. What Is Portland Cement?

Portland cement is composed of calcium silicates and aluminate and aluminoferrite It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions limestone clay and other minerals in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature - around 1500 deg centigrade to produce 'clinker'. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). When mixed with water, sand and stone, it combines slowly with the water to form a hard mass called concrete.

ACC Limited, one of the top manufacturers of cement has a diverse range of portland cement at an affordable prices.Visit your nearest ACC Dealership to find out more

Q. What Are Supplementary Cementations Materials (SCM)?

Supplementary Cementations Materials (SCM) like silica fumes, meta-kaolin, fly ash, slag are the materials which improve the properties of concrete and enhance its durability, by reducing pore size in concrete through better particle distribution and through increased packing density of the concrete.

Q. How Fineness Of Cement Affect Strength Gain?

Fineness defines the surface area of cement particles present in per unit weight, which implies that more fineness means more particles in unit weight. This enhances the reaction rate which in turn will result in faster gain of strength at earlier stages.

ACC, being India’s first cement company, has long been developing products that have higher durability and strength. Like ACC Gold Water Shield Cement, India’s first water-repellent cement and ACC Suraksha Power Cement, infused with unique strength multipliers that keep increasing the strength over time.

Q. What Is Blended Cement?

Blended cement is obtained by either intergrinding pozzolanic material or slag with clinker along with Gypsum or by blending ground pozzolana or slag with Portland cement. They are also termed as composite cements.

ACC has a special blended cement in its vast portfolio, produced by inter-grinding higher strength Ordinary Portland Cement clinker with high quality processed fly ash at a pocket-friendly price.

Q. How Does Blended Cement Affect Durability?

Pozzolana combines with lime and alkalies in the cement and when water is mixed forms compounds which contribute to strength, impermeability and sulphate resistance It also contributes to workability, reduced bleeding and controls destructive expansion from alkali-aggregate reaction. Leaching of free lime is also reduced.

Q. What Is Setting Of Cement?

When water is mixed with cement, the paste so formed remains pliable and plastic for a short time. During this period it is possible to disturb the paste and remit it without any deleterious effects. As the reaction between water and cement continues, the paste loses its plasticity. This early period in the hardening of cement is referred to as 'setting' of cement. ACC F2R Superfast is a revolutionary cement designed to reduce the construction time by setting fast and providing higher strength. Contact your nearest ACC Dealer to know more.

Q. What Is Initial And Final Setting Time Of Cement?

Initial set is when the cement paste loses its plasticity and stiffens considerably. Final set is the point when the paste hardens and can sustain some minor load. Both are arbitrary points and these are determined by Vicat needle penetration resistance. If you want to speed up the construction process and setting time, use ACC F2R Superfast, a superior cement with superfine quality and superfast setting formula.

Q. What Are The Reasons For Slow Or Fast Setting Of Concrete Or Mortar?

Slow or fast setting normally depends on the nature of cement. It could also be due to extraneous factors not related to the cement. The ambient conditions play an important role. In hot weather, the setting is faster, in cold weather, setting is delayed. Some types of salts, chemicals, clay, etc if inadvertently get mixed with the sand, aggregate and water could accelerate or delay the setting of concrete. Ask your nearest ACC Dealer for a super-fast setting cement.

Q. What Are The Different Grades Of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)?

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified OPC in three different grades. The classification is mainly based on the compressive strength of cement-sand mortar cubes of face area 50 cm2 composed of 1 part of cement to 3 parts of standard sand by weight with a water-cement ratio arrived at by a specified procedure.

The grades are:

  • 33 grade
  • 43 grade
  • 53 grade

The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure. Get in touch with your nearest ACC Dealership to know more about the details.

Q. What Is Portland Pozzolana Cement?

Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is obtained by either intergrinding a pozzolanic material with clinker and gypsum, or by blending ground pozzolana with Portland cement. Nowadays good quality fly ash is available from Thermal Power Plants, which are processed and used in manufacturing of PPC. ACC Fly-ash based PPC is made by intergrinding high strength clinker with specially processed flyash. Contact the ACC Dealer to know the price and many benefits of PPC.

Q. What Are The Advantages Of Using Portland Pozzolana Cement Over OPC?

Pozzolana combines with lime and alkali in cement when water is added and forms compounds which contribute to strength, impermeability and sulphate resistance. It also contributes to workability, reduced bleeding and controls destructive expansion from alkali-aggregate reaction. It reduces heat of hydration thereby controlling temperature differentials, which causes thermal strain and resultant cracking n mass concrete structures like dams.

ACC Fly-ash based PPC easily replaces OPC and provides additional advantages for practically all types of construction applications - commercial, residential, bungalows, complexes, foundation, columns, beams, slabs and RCC jobs.

Q. Why Is The Colour Of PPC Sometimes Different From OPC?

The colour of PPC comes from the colour of the pozzolanic material used. PPC containing fly ash as a pozzolana will invariably be slightly different colour than the OPC.

Q. Does The Shade Of Cement Affect Quality?

No. The quality of cement depends upon the raw materials used and the quality control measures adopted during its manufacture, and not on the shade of the cement. The cement gets its colour from the nature and colour of raw materials used, which will be different from factory to factory, and may even differ in the different batches of cement produced in a factory. Further, the colour of the finished concrete is affected also by the colour of the aggregates, and to a lesser extent by the colour of the cement. Preference for any cement on the basis ofcolour alone is technically misplaced. Hence, its wise to always choose quality over price.

Q. What Is Slag?

Slag is a non-metallic product consisting essentially of glass containing silicates, alumino-silicates of lime and other bases and is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of pig iron in a blast furnace or electric furnace. Granulated slag is used in the manufacture of Portland Slag Cement (PSC).

Q. How Is PSC Made?

PSC is made by inter grinding clinker, granulated blast furnace slag and gypsum, or by blending ground slag with Portland cement.

Q. Where Can PSC Be Used?

Slag cement can be used for all plain and reinforced concrete constructions, mass concreting structures such as dams, reservoirs, swimming pools, river embankments, bridge piers, etc. It is used with advantage where low heat of hydration and resistance to alkali-silica reaction are desired, for structures in aggressive environments where chemical and mildly acidic waters are encountered (where the use of OPC is not recommended), for marine constructions, dykes, wharves, etc where sulphatic water is encountered. In short, PSC can be used wherever OPC is used.

Visit your nearest ACC Dealership to discover the various PSC options available at an affordable rate.

Q. What Is The Effect Of Long Storage Periods On Cement?

Cement which is in the form of a fine powder has a tendency to absorb moisture present in the atmosphere. When it absorbs moisture it hydrates, and when subsequently used does not contribute to the strength development. Jute bags (gunny bags) in which cement is bagged are neither airtight nor damp-proof and do not prevent absorption of moisture. Cement deteriorates in quality on long storage.

Cement bagged in woven polythene bags or paper bags are not likely to deteriorate to the extent mentioned above. The loss of strength also depends on the condition of the godown. It is advisable to use cement within three months of its bagging, or to test the cement for its strength if stored for longer periods. Hence cement bought first should be used first.

Q. How Should Cement Be Stored?

Precautions that must be taken in the storage of Portland cement are given below in a series of DON'Ts.

  • Do not store bags in a building or a godown in which the walls, roof and floor are not completely weatherproof.
  • Do not store bags in a new warehouse until the interior has thoroughly dried out.
  • Do not be content with badly fitting windows and doors, make sure they fit properly and ensure that they are kept shut.
  • Do not stack bags against the wall. Similarly, don't pile them on the floor unless it is a dry concrete floor. If not, bags should be stacked on wooden planks or sleepers.
  • Do not forget to pile the bags close together.Do not pile more than 15 bags high and arrange the bags in a header-and-stretcher fashion.
  • Do not disturb the stored cement until it is to be taken out for use.
  • Do not take out bags from one tier only. Step back two or three tiers.
  • Do not keep dead storage. The principle of first-in first-out should be followed in removing bags.
  • Do not stack bags on the ground for temporary storage at work site. Pile them on a raised, dry platform and cover with tarpaulin or polythene sheet.

Q. How To Identify The Time For Which The Cement Was Stored Before Use?

On the cement bag, week number, month and year of manufacturing are mentioned. Make sure you check them before buying and using cement.

Q. What Is 'Curing' And Why Is It So Important?

The term 'curing' is used to include maintenance of a favorable environment for the continuation of chemical reactions, i.e. retention of moisture within, or supplying moisture to the concrete from an external source and protection against extremes of temperature.

We, as a leading cement brand are there to help you at every step of your construction. Contact your nearest ACC Dealer for help, support and advice.

Q. What Is The Correct Method Of Curing?

If a concrete mix is placed in and around a cage of steel rods, it is called Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC).

  • Walls: Water should be sprinkled from the top such that it covers the whole area of the wall and it should be remain wet.
  • Slab: Ponding should be done on the slab by constructing bunds of mortar of approximately 1mX1m and water should be stored.
  • Beams and columns: The beams and columns can be maintained wet by tying gunny bags around the periphery and by maintaining it wet always.

Just as curing plays a significant role, buying and using the right materialsare also important.Therefore, it’s wise to choose quality over price. To know more about the importance of high qualitymaterials, feel free to get in touch with then. ACC Customer Service or ACC Dealership.

Q. What Methods Are Commonly Employed To Ensure Sufficient Moisture For Curing?

Ponding, continuous sprinkling, covering with wet cloth, cotton mats or similar materials, covering with specially prepared paper, polyethylene, sealing coat applied as a liquid commonly known as 'curing compound' which hardens to form a thin protective membrane, are some of the methods by which concrete is cured.

If you have any further questions about curing, we are there to answer them. The ACC Dealers and ACC Customer Care Service are always there to assist you at every step.

Q. When Should Curing Be Started And When Is It Complete?

Curing should be started just after the surfaces begin to dry. Normally 7 to 14 days curing is considered adequate.

Q. What Is Formwork?

Forms or moulds or shutters are the receptacles in which concrete is placed, so that it will have the desired shape or outline when hardened. Once the concrete develops adequate strength, the forms are removed. Forms are generally made of the materials like timber, plywood, steel, etc.

Q. Why Camber Is Provided In Shuttering?

Camber is provided in the formwork for horizontal members to counteract the effect of deflection caused due to the weight of reinforcement and concrete placed over that.

Q. Why Lubrication Is Required On Shuttering Surfaces?

Shuttering boards/Planks should be properly oiled or greased with shuttering oil before the placement of reinforcement. The oil film sandwiched between concrete and formwork surface not only helps in easy removal of shuttering but also prevents loss of moisture from the concrete through absorption and evaporation.

Q. When Formwork Should Be Removed?

The removal of formwork after the concrete has set is termed as stripping. The period up to which the forms must be left in place before they are stripped is called stripping time. The factors affecting the stripping time are the position of the forms, the loads coming on the elements immediately after stripping, temperature of the atmosphere, the subsequent loads coming on the element etc.

As a guideline, with temperature above 20 degree following time limits should be followed:

ELEMENTS AND SUPPORTING CONDITIONS STRIPPING TIME IN DAYS
WALLS, COLUMNS, VERTICAL SIDES OF BEAM 1 TO 2
SLABS REMOVAL OF PROPS
A) SPAN UP TO 4.5M 7
B) SPAN OVER 4.5 M 14
BEAM AND ARCHES: REMOVAL OF PROPS
A) SPAN UP TO 6M 14
B) SPAN OVER 6M 21

Q. What Precaution Should Be Taken In GI (Galvanized Iron) Concealed Pipeline?

It should be pressure tested.

Q. What Class Of GI Pipe Is Generally Used For Residential Construction?

Class 'B' (medium grade) pipe.

Q. How To Fix Glazed Tiles On Walls?

It should be fixed on rough plastered surface with cement mortar 1:1. Neat cement for fixing tiles should not be used.

ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-111, ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-222 and ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-333 are ready-to-use tile adhesives from the trusted house of ACC with higher bond strength.

Q. Can Drainage From Kitchen/Toilet Be Directly Connected To Manhole?

No. first, it should be connected to gully trap and then to the manhole.

Q. What Is Steel Reinforcement? Why Is It Required In A Concrete Structure?

Steel reinforcements are used, generally, in the form of bars of circular cross section in concrete structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcements, to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads.

Q. What Is Bar-Bending-Schedule?

Bar-bending-schedule is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting and bending of rebars. This schedule contains all details of size, shape and dimension of rebars to be cut.

Q. What Are The Different Types Of Steel Reinforcements Being Used In A Reinforced Concrete Structure?

Mild steel bars conforming to IS: 432 (Part I) and Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars conforming to IS: 1786 (grade Fe 415 and grade Fe 500, where 415 and 500 indicate yield stresses 415 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2 respectively) are commonly used. Grade Fe 415 is being used most commonly nowadays. This has limited the use of plain mild steel bars because of higher yield stress and bond strength resulting in saving of steel quantity.

Some companies have brought thermo mechanically treated (TMT) and corrosion resistant steel (CRS) bars with added features.

Bars range in diameter from 6 to 50 mm. Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars start from 8 mm diameter. For general house constructions, bars of diameter 6 to 20 mm are used.

Q. Why Cover Blocks Are Required To Be Placed Before Concreting? What Are Their Sizes?

Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from getting exposed to the atmosphere, and to place and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Once the steel is exposed to the atmosphere, corrosion starts. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured.

Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are used. As a thumb rule, minimum cover of 2" in footings, 1.5" in columns and 1" for other structures may be ensured.

Q. How Important Are Transverse Reinforcements Like Links And Stirrups?

Transverse reinforcements are very important. They not only take care of structural requirements but also help main reinforcements to remain in desired position. They play a very significant role while abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc. They should be closely spaced as per the drawing and properly tied to the main/longitudinal reinforcement.

Q. What Is A Lap Or Development Length? Where And How Should They Be Provided?

Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length.. Lap length about 50 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. Laps of neighboring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. At one cross section, a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped.

In case, required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints, bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding).

Q. What Is Anchorage Length?

This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. For example, main bars of beam in column at beam column junction, column bars in footing etc. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions.

Q. What Is The Checklist For Steel Reinforcement Before The Placement/Pour Of Concrete?

Reinforcement should be free from loose rust, oil paints, mud etc. it should be cut, bent and fixed properly. The reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, laps etc. Reinforcements shall be placed and tied such that concrete placement is possible without segregation, and compaction possible by an immersion vibrator.

Q. For A Given Diameter, How Do We Calculate The Weight Of Steel Per Meter Length Of The Steel Bar

For any steel reinforcement bar, weight per running meter is equal to d2/162 Kg, where d is diameter of the bar in mm. For example, 10 mm diameter bar will weigh 10x10/162 = 0.617 Kg/m.

Q. Can We Receive The Quality Test Certificate Of Steel From The Supplier?

Yes. We can receive the test certificate of the batch of materials supplied at our site. The certificate will confirm the compliance of quality of supplied materials as per the requirement of relevant Indian standard code.

Q. What Precautions Should We Taken In Electrical Works?

Following precautions/practices would be helpful from safety and quality points of view -

  • Always buy electrical items, which carry ISI mark.
  • Identify locations for switch boards in advance so that they would not obstruct while decorating rooms.
  • Proper earthing should be done for the entire house.
  • Proper class of wiring should be done.
  • Each power board should have separate fuse.
  • Registered electrical contractors should be engaged for carrying out electrical works.
  • Consumption of electricity should be need based. Try to save electricity as much as possible. The entire network and materials should be designed to avoid unnecessary/excess power losses during transmission.

Q. How To Prevent Accidental Shocks?

Use of RCCB/ ELCB (Residual current circuit breaker/ Earth Leakage circuit breaker) prevents the accidental shocks and also keep a check on the earthing system of the house. In case of leakage of very small current in milli-amperes would trip the circuit and prevent the mishap.

Q. What Are Single Phase And Three Phase Systems?

Single Phase System - It consists of one phase wire, a neutral wire and earthing wire. It is commonly used for domestic purposes.

Three Phase System - It consists of three phase wires and an earthing wire and is used for industrial and commercial purposes.

Q. Why Is Earthing Required?

Earthing is required to by-pass the over-rated current caused due to fluctuation in circuit parameters such as phase frequency and line voltage etc., to save human life and electrical assets from short circuits.

Q. What Is A Fuse Wire/Switch?

Fuse is a conditional switch having fuse wire of low melting point required to save the electrical network in case of overloads and short circuits.

Q. How Do We Pay For The Electricity Consumed By Us?

Electricity is measured in terms of kilo Watt Hour and tariff is decided on that basis. Hence, kilo Watt Hour is a unit of consumption of electricity. Thus, electrical equipment, which consumes 1 Kilowatt, will cost you one unit if the same is used for one hour.

Q. What Is Short Circuit?

Short circuit occurs due to accidental contact of phase with another phase or phase with neutral or phase with earth wire.

Q. Why Is It Required To Provide MCB In The House Wiring?

It is a magnetic tripping device working during short circuit or overloading. It is mainly used to protect life and other electrical assets.

Q. Is Concealed Wiring Safe For A Building?

Concealed wiring is safe for the building as long as it is properly placed and joints are properly covered. There should be tap holes for checking the wiring at suitable intervals. The wiring should not be too close to the slab and also from the water bodies in the building. The wiring should not be exposed to external cracks in the walls.

Q. Will Concealing The Electric Wires In Slab Or Any Other Concrete Structures Weaken The Concrete?

No, the concealed wiring will not weaken the concrete structure.

Q. Why Plastering Is Required?

Plaster protects structure from temperature variations; external attacks of sulphates, chlorides, etc. Plaster also provides smooth & aesthetic surface on RCC & Brickwork surface. If you want to save your time and make your home long-lasting, use ACC ready-to-use Plasters. Call your nearest ACC Dealership today.

Q. What Precautions Should Be Taken During Plaster Works?

  • Preferably use cements which releases low heat of hydration. Blended Cement is a good choice.
  • Use optimum water at the time of mixing.
  • Do not use dry cement on the plaster surface.
  • At the junction of Brickwork & RCC, chicken mesh or fibre mesh may be used.
  • Wet the surface before plastering.
  • Cure the surface for at least 10 to 12 days.

Q. What Are Carpet Area, Built-Up Area & Super Built-Up Area?

Carpet Area: This is the area of the apartment/building, which does not include the area covered by the walls. Built up Area: The carpet area plus the area of the walls. Super Built up Area: This includes the built up area along with the area under common spaces such as the lobby, lifts, stairs, etc.

Q. What Are The Things One Should Keep In Mind Before Finalizing A Land Deal?

Some points which one must pay attention to prior to land deal:

  • House plot should not be under any acquisition proceedings of any government bodies
  • Verify from the planning authorities whether the land was designated for residential use.
  • The survey number of land is critical.
  • Certificate obtained from registrar’s office should confirm that there is no encumbrance on the property.
  • The title deed of the land should be clear and an advocate should be consulted for this.
  • Verify the rates after contacting some property consultants and some people who have purchased their plots recently. You should also refer guidelines and the market rates published in the government manual of your city/town.
  • Stamp duty at the time of registration is mandatory.

Q. What Are The Important Considerations Before Selecting A Piece Of Land?

While selecting the land one should give importance to following issues:

  • Required size of plot and construction area
  • Existing rates area wise
  • Distances from Railway Station, Bus Stand and Air Port.
  • Distance from your work place.
  • Distances from hospital and medical clinics.
  • Available infrastructure like water supply, drainage, road etc.

Q. What Are The Points, One Should Pay Attention To While Awarding The Contracts For House Construction

Whatever the type of contract, one needs to pay close attention to the following aspects:

  • Type of materials
  • Quality of work
  • Advance payment, if any
  • Progress & time schedule
  • Future measurement & payment conditions

Q. What Would Be An Approximate Cost Per Sq.Ft Of My House Construction?

To give an idea, depending on the finishes you choose, the construction cost should be as follows-

TYPE OF FINISH IN THE CONSTRUCTION COST (IN RUPEES) PER SQ.FT OF CONSTRUCTION
TOP CLASS FINISH 750 - 1000
MEDIUM CLASS FINISH 480 - 700
SIMPLE CLASS FINISH 350 - 550

Q. What Is The Ratio Of Material, Labor And Other Expenditures For House Construction?

60:30:10

Q. What Would Be The Approximate Cost Break Up For Various Works In Terms Of Percentage Of Construction

SR. NO. MATERIALS/ACTIVITIES EXPENDITURE IN TERMS OF PERCENTAGE OF CONSTRUCTION COST OF THE BUILDING
1. DESIGN & FEE FOR ENGINEER/ARCHITECT 3-5
2. LABOR CONTRACTOR FOR CONCRETE 6-10
3. LAY OUT & EXCAVATION 2-4
4. WATER 0-2
5. SOIL/MOORAM 1-3
6. CEMENT 10-14
7. SAND 3-5
8. BRICKS 8-10
9. STONE AGGREGATES 4-6
10. STEEL RODS (SARIYA) 3-5
11. DOORS & WINDOWS 6-8
12. SHUTTERING/ FORMWORK 2-4
13. BORE WELL 2-4
14. PLUMBING & SANITATION 6-8
15. ELECTRICAL WORKS 4-6
16. FLOORING 3-7
17. PAINTING 6-12
18. BOUNDARY WALLS & MAIN GATE 1-3
19. OTHERS 6-8

Q. What Is The Difference Between Floor Tiles And Wall Tiles?

Ceramic & vitrified tiles can be divided into two categories, a) wall tiles and b) floor tiles. The properties of both the tiles are different. Since floor tiles are exposed to severe abrasion and friction. They are thicker and tougher than wall tiles.

If you want your tiles to stay forever, use the power of strong ready-to-use ACC Tile Adhesives, specially designed to fix your tiles with superior bond strength.

Q. Can We Lay Ceramic Tile Or Vitrified Tiles On The Existing Floor Without Removing Them?

Yes, the new tiles can be laid on top of old flooring by proper roughening the surface and using polymer based adhesive for laying. But the door shutter needs to be cut and adjusted for the elevated floor level. Have more doubts like these? Connect with your local ACC Dealer.

Q. What Are The Various Kinds Of Floorings?

The purpose of a floor is to provide a horizontal sanitary surface to support the occupants of a building, furniture and equipment. A good floor should have strength and stability, resistance to dampness, good appearance, and freedom from maintenance etc.

Following are the common floor finishes -

  • Cement concrete flooring: It consists of 1:1.5:3 cement concrete laid to a thickness of 3" to 4", over a strong sub base. Top surface is smoothened with cement punning. It has got good wearing properties and can be easily cleaned and maintained. If thickness is less, the size of stone aggregates is limited to ½"
  • Terrazzo (Marble chips) flooring: It consists of an under layer of cement concrete 1:2:4 (stone aggregates size limited to ½") of around 1" thickness, and a top layer of containing marble chips of thickness ¼'' to ½". The under layer is laid over base concrete, generally, of 1:5:10 or 1:4:8 of 4" thickness.
  • The mix for the topping shall consist of cement with or without pigments, marble powder and marble chips and water. Marble chips would be of size 1mm to 10mm. The proportions of cement and marble powder shall be 3:1 by weight. Ratio of chips to binder would be 1.5:1 to 1.75:1.The floor is ground and polished after 7 to 10 days of curing.
  • Tile flooring: It consists of ceramic, vitrified, terrazzo and cement tiles. Tiles give very pleasant appearance to floors. Also, it can be executed fast. Vitrified and Ceramic tiles have gained popularity over mosaic tiles because it doesn't require grinding and polishing and the appearance is good and the tiles are quite strong.
  • Natural Stone flooring: It consists of Marble, Kota stone, granite, Shahbad stone etc.
  • Vinyl flooring: The least expensive type of flooring, vinyl tile comes in a wide variety of colours and patterns. Since it is quick to install and replace whenever desired, it is commonly laid in drawing rooms. The life of vinyl floor topping is limited.

ACC offers a comprehensive range of ready-to-use Tile Adhesives for fixing tiles and marbles for internal walls & floors and external floor application with higher strength & water retention properties. Available at an affordable price. Head to your nearest ACC Dealership for more information.

Q. Can A Floor Topping Be Laid Over The Water Leaking Concrete Floor Of Basement?

It is advisable to repair the area, where the water leakage or dampness is observed by means of grouting as per advice of an experienced engineer, before taking up any floor topping or finishing work. But once this is done, any type of floor toppings can be applied including vinyl floor, mosaic / ceramic / vitrified tile, marble or any type of stone flooring.

Explore best-in-class waterproofing solutions from the trusted house of ACC. Right from waterproof plaster to waterproof cement, get everything under one roof. Call your nearest ACC Dealer for more details.

Q. What General Considerations We Should Have While Laying Out The Pipelines?

Carpet Area: This is the area of the apartment/building, which does not include the area covered by the walls. Built up Area: The carpet area plus the area of the walls. Super Built up Area: This includes the built up area along with the area under common spaces such as the lobby, lifts, stairs, etc.

1. The lines should be so laid that there is no risk contamination of water supply. For this, following three things are necessary -
1. No cross connection anywhere between pipes carrying potable water carrying wastewater.
2. No back flow from any appliance towards the source of supply.
3. Water supply pipes and wastewater pipes (drainage pipes) not to be laid very close to each other.
2. Pipelines should be properly protected against any damage. Underground pipeline should be enclosed in a cement mortar and have sufficient earth cover
3. Pipe network should be simple and straight as far as possible.

To avoid water damage, follow these steps.If you want to reduce the risk of seepage and live worry-free, use ACC Gold Water Shield Cement, India’s first water repellent cement. Its unique water-resistantformula protects your home from seepage and gives long-lasting strength.

Q. How Much Water Do We Require For Daily Consumption And Storage?

For residential buildings, water requirement of 135 liters per head per day may be assumed. For example, for four persons, we should plan storing and consuming 4x135 = 540 liters of water everyday.

If you have any further questions, please feel free to reach out to your nearest ACC Dealer.

Q. What Kind Of Materials One Should Use In Laying Pipelines?

There are many options like copper/brass pipe, galvanized iron (GI) pipes, plastic pipes etc. However, GI pipes are more commonly used in India.

Q. What Is A Service Pipe? What Should Be Its Diameter?

The pipe leading from the distribution mains of the municipal water supply to the plumbing system of the house is known as the service pipe. As a general yardstick, the diameter of the service pipe can be fixed on the basis of occupants in the house, as given in the following table-

NO. OF OCCUPANTS DIAMETER OF SERVICE PIPE (MM)
4 12.5
8 20
24 25
60 30

Q. How Should We Design Our Storage Tanks?

The water supply to a building may either be continuous or intermittent. Even in the case of continuous supply in the mains, the pressure of water may not be sufficient to raise the water to all the floors of the building. In either case, storage tanks are required. The storage tanks may be situated either at the ground level, or at the roof level or at both levels. If the pressure of the water is sufficient to raise the water to the roof level, storage tank is provided only at the roof level, so as to store water because of intermittent supplies. If the pressure of water is not sufficient, water is first stored at a ground level tank, from where it is pumped to the top storage tank.

A storage tank may be made of mild steel plates or reinforced concrete or brick masonry or plastic. It should have accessories like top cover, valve with ball float assembly to control the inflow of water, overflow pipe in case float assembly fails, supply or inlet pipe for water to admit into the tank, outlet pipe and drainpipe to clean the water periodically.

The capacity of storage tank depends on following factors -

  1. Supply hours from the mains, with sufficient pressure.
  2. Frequency with which the tank can be refilled during 24 hours.
  3. Rate and regularity of supply.

For example, in case if the example given in the previous question, if water supply is once a day only and for not a considerable period, it would be advisable that the entire daily requirement of 540 liters be stored in the tank and consumed later. Therefore, the capacity of the tank in this case would be 540 liters.

Q. Are There Any Effects If The Water Pipes Are Concealed In The Walls?

Only small diameter pipes used for supply of water for domestic purpose can be concealed. During the laying of pipes care should be taken to see that the nodes or the joints are properly fixed without any chance of leakage. But it is always recommended to conceal pipes only in unavoidable situations and limit it to small lengths.

ACC Gold Water Shield Cement and ACC LeakBlock are the best solutions to protect your home from leakage and provide superior strength. Contact your nearest ACC Dealership to know more.

Q. Should We Prepare A House Drainage Plan?

Yes. It is always better to prepare house drainage plan. In some cities, it is statutory to submit such plans. We should plan in advance about the position of baths, water closets, urinals, wash basins and other units along with the position of traps, manholes, soak pits/septic tanks, public sewer, as applicable.

Q. What Is A Septic Tank? How Does It Work?

A septic tank is used to treat sewage from isolated group of country houses, where a piped sewage system (i.e., a public sewer) is not available. It is a horizontal continuous flow sedimentation tank in which sewage moves very slowly. Septic tank serves two purposes: deposition of settling solids in sewage by sedimentation, and partial or complete digestion of the sludge prior to its disposal. A septic tank produces septic action by anaerobic bacteria, wherein proteins, carbohydrates, cellulose and fatty matter present in sewage are broken to simpler compounds. The nitrogen is converted to ammonia, while the colloidal matter is flocculated, then liquefied and finally digested. The effluent from the septic tank is discharged either into the soak pit or below ground level through drains, so that the effluent gets absorbed in the soil. A baffle wall with openings is constructed at some distance away from the inlet. The sludge, which is deposited in the bottom is cleaned periodically, say once in 6 to 12 months. A vent pipe is provided for the escape of gases.

Q. What Is Function Of A Soak Pit? What Is A Sludge Soak Pit?

A soak pit is a covered pit dug in the ground, in which effluent from the septic tank is discharged. It is generally dug in the previous soil which can absorb the effluent.

A sludge soak pit is the one in which the sewage effluent from the house drain is directly discharged. The water in the accumulated sewage is soaked by adjoining pervious soil while the sludge is digested in the pit. Such soak pits are very common where subsoil is very pervious. Usually, the pit is lined with masonry with open joints. The top is covered with rigid slab. The diameter of such tank varies from 2 m to 3 m, while depth varies from 2.5m to 4 m. each individual house has one such soak pit which has a life of about 20 years for a family of 6 persons. When the soak pit gets filled up, the top cover is removed and the tank is emptied.

Q. What Should Be Floor Level Of Bathroom/Kitchen?

The level of the bathroom/kitchen floor should be 12-20 mm below the surrounding floor. The slope of flooring should be towards nahani trap or floor trap.

Q. What Precaution Should Be Taken In GI (Galvanized Iron) Concealed Pipeline?

It should be pressure tested.

Q. What Class Of GI Pipe Is Generally Used For Residential Construction?

Class 'B' (medium grade) pipe.

Q. How To Fix Glazed Tiles On Walls?

It should be fixed on rough plastered surface with cement mortar 1:1. Neat cement for fixing tiles should not be used.

ACC offers ready-to-use strong tile adhesives with higher bond strength and water retention properties. ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-111, ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-222 and ACC Suraksha Tile Fix-333- available at your nearest ACC Dealership.

Q. Can Drainage From Kitchen/Toilet Be Directly Connected To Manhole?

No. first, it should be connected to gully trap and then to the manhole.

Q. What Is Cement Based Paint And Why Curing With Water Is Required?

Cement paint is a paint made out of cement with different pigments and it is applied on the external walls of the house. Before applying the paint, the wall cement plaster needs to be saturated with water and the paint is applied on damp surface. The painted surface needs to be cured for 3 to 4 days for proper hydration of cement based materials, which give life to the paints in terms of performance and better aesthetics.

Q. What Are The Precautions Required Before Painting The Internal Wall?

Following precautions would be necessary before painting the internal surface of the house.

1. Check & rectify water leakage/ dampness from any place.

2.Fill the cracks in the external and internal wall with suitable ready-made sealant after widening the crack up to 4mm to ensure proper filling.

3. Newly plastered surface should be allowed to dry. Remove loose particles by rubbing with sand paper & to ensure that the surface is dry and free from dust, dirt etc.

4. Apply a coat of primer.

5. Apply acrylic based polymer putty or Plaster of Paris (POP) to level undulations.

6. Apply one more coat of primer. Allow it to dry for 10-12 hours. Apply first coat of paint after addition of thinners as per manufacturer's specification. Keep an interval of 4-8 hours between any two coats. Generally 2-3 coats of finish paint give satisfactory results.

Q. What Are The Reasons For Cracks/Gaps At The Joint Of Doorframe And Wall?

Wood absorbs moisture from air when the moisture content is high in the atmosphere and as a result it expands causing cracks in the wall. During dry atmosphere the wood contracts and a gap is formed between the wall and the frame of the door.

Q. Which Wood Should Be Used For Making Of Doors And Windows?

A good quality wood like, Holyoke, deodar, teak etc. should be used. The wood should be properly seasoned.

Q. How Do We Start Repairs?

  1. It is necessary to appoint a structural Consultant for repairs. He does the physical examination and testing of the structures is first done and weak spot /areas are identified.
  2. Consultant prepares and estimates the cost by preparing bill of quantities of various items/area of repairs.

Q. What Are The Steps Followed In Concrete / Masonry Repairs?

  1. Defective ( Cracked ) portion of concrete or plaster has to be removed.
  2. During repairs, columns, beams must be supported to reduce load on this members.
  3. Remove all rust from steel bars.
  4. Wash & clean the entire surface before taking up repairs.
  5. If masonry is in bad condition it should be replaced.
  6. The repaired surface must be scratched and roughened to give mechanical bond with subsequent finishing coats of mortar or plaster.
  7. The repair surface should be cured for 7 days.

Q. What Are Single Phase And Three Phase Systems?

Single Phase System - It consists of one phase wire, a neutral wire and earthing wire. It is commonly used for domestic purposes.

Three Phase System - It consists of three phase wires and an earthing wire and is used for industrial and commercial purposes.

Q. Why Is Earthing Required?

Earthing is required to by-pass the over-rated current caused due to fluctuation in circuit parameters such as phase frequency and line voltage etc., to save human life and electrical assets from short circuits.

Q. What Is A Fuse Wire/Switch?

Fuse is a conditional switch having fuse wire of low melting point required to save the electrical network in case of overloads and short circuits.

Q. How Do We Pay For The Electricity Consumed By Us?

Electricity is measured in terms of kilo Watt Hour and tariff is decided on that basis. Hence, kilo Watt Hour is a unit of consumption of electricity. Thus, electrical equipment, which consumes 1 Kilowatt, will cost you one unit if the same is used for one hour.

Q. What Is Short Circuit?

Short circuit occurs due to accidental contact of phase with another phase or phase with neutral or phase with earth wire.

Q. Why Is It Required To Provide MCB In The House Wiring?

It is a magnetic tripping device working during short circuit or overloading. It is mainly used to protect life and other electrical assets.

Q. Is Concealed Wiring Safe For A Building?

Concealed wiring is safe for the building as long as it is properly placed and joints are properly covered. There should be tap holes for checking the wiring at suitable intervals. The wiring should not be too close to the slab and also from the water bodies in the building. The wiring should not be exposed to external cracks in the walls.

Q. Will Concealing The Electric Wires In Slab Or Any Other Concrete Structures Weaken The Concrete?

No, the concealed wiring will not weaken the concrete structure.

Q. How To Test The Quality Of Bricks At Small Construction Sites?

Normally the bricks are tested for Compressive strength, water absorption, dimensional tolerances and efflorescence. However at small construction sites the quality of bricks can be assessed based on following, which is prevalent in many sites.

  1. 1. Visual check - Bricks should be well burnt and of uniform size and color.
  2. 2. Striking pf two bricks together should produce a metallic ringing sound.
  3. 3. It should have surface so hard that can’t be scratched by the fingernails.
  4. 4. A good brick should not break if dropped in standing position from one metre above ground level.
  5. 5. A good brick shouldn’t absorb moisture of more than 15-20% by weight, when soaked in water For example, a good brick of 2 kg shouldn’t weigh more than 2.3 to 2.4 kg if immersed in water for 24 hours.

Q. What Is The Importance Of Frog (Depression In The Brick) In Masonry?

The depression in the brick on top (approximately 100mmX40mm X10 to 15mm deep) is called the frog and the mortar is filled in the frog while laying the bricks in masonry work to help in bonding and acting as a shear key against horizontal loads.

Q. What Precautions To Be Taken In Brick Masonry Work?

  1. 1. Bricks should be soaked in water for adequate period so that the water penetrates to its full thickness. Normally 6 to 8 hours of wetting is sufficient.
  2. 2.A systematic bond must be maintained throughout the brickwork. Vertical joints shouldn’t be continuous but staggered.
  3. 3. The joint thickness shouldn’t exceed 1 cm. It should be thoroughly filled with the cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 (Cement: Sand by volume)
  4. 4. All bricks should be placed on their bed with frogs on top (depression on top of the brick for providing bond with mortar).
  5. 5. Thread, plumb bob and spirit level should be used for alignment, verticality and horizontality of construction.
  6. 6. Joints should be raked and properly finished with trowel or float, to provide good bond.
  7. 7. A maximum of one metre wall height should be constructed in a day.
  8. 8. Brickwork should be properly cured for at least 10 days.

Q. How Many Days Of Curing Are Adequate For Brickwork?

The brickwork should be cured with water and kept moist for minimum 7 to 10 days period for proper development of strength.

Q. What Is The Difference Between A Load Bearing Masonry Structure And RCC Framed Building?

Load-bearing masonry structure transfers the structural load of the building through the masonry walls and masonry footing and do not have concrete columns and footing. A RCC framed building would have columns (pillars) arising out of foundations, which bear the load of the building through column-beam frame and transfer the load to foundation. Load bearing walls are not economical in most cases if the building has more than three stories. RCC framed system is slender and having flexibility of shifting it’s internal light weight partition walls.

Q. Why Do Leakages Occur In Concrete Structures?

Leakages occur because of various reasons; some of which are mentioned below:

  1. 1. Accumulation of water, which start penetrating the surface.
  2. 2. Poor quality and improper proportioning of concrete constituents that make concrete permeable.
  3. 3. Poor compaction of concrete, which leave a lot of air voids.
  4. 4. Construction joints at two different works like concrete and brick works, and discontinuity in concrete casting (joint at old concrete and new concrete) leading minute cracks, which facilitate water movement.
  5. 5. Other structural cracks because of loading conditions and failure of the structure to withstand those stresses.
  6. 6. Movement of water from bottom to top because of capillary action.

ACC Limited offers a vast range of waterproofing solutions to protect your home from leakages and water damages. Head to your nearest ACC Dealership to find out.

Q. How Can Leakages Be Avoided?

Following measures may be useful to avoid leakages:

  1. 1. Provide good drainage facility with correct gradient at the places where there are chances for water to accumulate.
  2. 2. Use good quality of materials with correct proportioning in concrete. For example, use of blended cement and use of less water in concrete can reduce permeability of the structure. Similarly, proper proportioning of materials would help concrete becoming uniformly packed and dense.
  3. 3. Proper compaction of concrete with immersion vibrator to make it void less.
  4. 4. Avoid construction joints becoming a weaker point for water to travel. Some proactive and treatment measures would be useful.
  5. 5. Proper structural design and execution of members, which results no cracks for water to percolate.
  6. 6. Proper damp proofing course required to avoid movement of ground and other water from bottom to top. Some useful methods are like applying bitumen, concrete construction etc. at plinth level.
  7. 7. Use of water proofing compounds for water retaining structures.

It’s wise to reduce the risk of leakages at the time of construction by using ACC Gold Water Shield Cement, a sure-shot way to avoid leakages and water damages.

Q. Do We Require Adding Waterproofing Materials In Normal Concrete Construction?

Normal concrete construction should not require waterproofing materials, if it is designed and constructed properly with good quality and workmanship.

ACC LeakBlock range is a is an advanced polymer technology based integral waterproofing compound specifically formulated using plasticizing and surface active additives. It prevent seepage 360 degrees and can be used for all types of applications such as foundation, roof slabs, columns, beams, external wall plastering, water tank, bathroom, kitchens, etc.

Q. In What Forms Waterproofing Materials, Available?

Waterproofing materials are available in powder and liquid forms. It is advisable to buy waterproofing materials of reputed companies and choose quality over price.

Q. While Repair Of Normal Constructions To Get Rid Of Leakages Or During Construction Of Water Retaining Structures, What Should Be The Doses Of Waterproofing Admixtures Or Construction Chemicals?

Always read the instructions of the manufacturer in product catalogue or on the container/packet.

ACC's waterproofing compound "ACCOPROOF" is available in powder form and 1 Kg packets. For regular purposes, 1 Kg is required to be used with 50 Kg (1 bag) of cement.

Q. What Are Admixtures?

Admixtures are those ingredients/materials that are added to cement, water, and aggregate mixture during mixing in order to modify or improve the properties of concrete for a required application.

ACC has an extensive range of admixtures to protect your home from water leakages and make it fully waterproof. To know more, call your nearest ACC Dealership.

Q. What Major Changes Can Be Expected In The Behavior Of Concrete In Which Admixtures Have Been Used?

Broadly the following five changes can be expected:

  1. 1.Air entertainment
  2. 2.Water reduction for better quality
  3. 3.Acceleration of strength development
  4. 4.Improving the workability
  5. 5.Water retention

Q. How Can You Ensure That The Admixture Will Perform As Required?

The best way to test the admixture is by making trial mixes with the concrete materials to be used on the job and carefully observing and measuring the change in the properties. This way the compatibility of the admixture and the materials to be used, as well as the effects of the admixture on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete can be observed. The amount of admixture recommended by the manufacturer or the optimum quantity determined by laboratory tests should be used.

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